HVAC Pipe Sizer - Steam Online Help

The HVAC Pipe Sizer - Steam application allows you to quickly size a simple steam pipe system by inputting a number of piping and steam properties.

The HVAC Pipe Sizer - Steam application allows you to quickly size a steam pipe run, and it also includes a steam table calculater.

This help is mainly geared toward the iPhone version of the HVAC Pipe Sizer - Steam app, but all of the input explanations also apply to the iPad version.

Quick Start

The following is a list of hints and suggestions to quickly get started using the "Pipe Sizer - Steam" application:
  1. Size pipe by steam flow: When the application first opens, select the "Size Steam Pipe (By Flow)" option to open the screen that allows you to specify the total steam flow in lbs/hr (kgs/hr), the steam pressure, and one of either pressure loss, diameter, or velocity to display the resulting exact and nominal pipe diameters and remaining properties.
  2. Steam Tables: This is a simple steam table application that allows you to input values for two parameters (for either saturated or superheated steam) and view the results for the remaining steam properties. You can also easily transfer the steam pressure/temperature results from the steam table mode to the pipe sizing mode.
  3. Nominal Pipe Sizing: The Pipe Sizer application includes nominal pipe sizing tables for a subset of all the pipe material types included with this application. Therefore, results for some pipe material types that don't have nominal pipe sizes will display "N/A" under the "Nominal" results column.
  4. Pipe Fitting Equivalent Lengths: The Pipe Sizer application includes fitting equivalent length tables for 11 different fitting types and a limited number of pipe material and connection types. Please see the section titled "Explanation of the Pipe Sizer Formulas" at the end of this help for more details.
  5. Moving the slider control indicator: If you are having trouble moving the little circle (indicator) on any of the slider controls, lightly tap the indicator twice with your finger, and it will "catch" allowing you to slide it to the left or right.

Overview

When you first open the Pipe Sizer application, you will see 3 tabs at the bottom of your screen:
  1. The "Pipe Sizer" tab displays the first screen that appears when you start up the application and allows you to size piping and use the steam tables.
  2. The "Global Settings" tab allows you to specify global settings such as whether to use english (imperial) or metric units. Please read the "Global Settings" section below for more details.
  3. The "Help" tab displays this help screen.

Pipe Sizer Tab

This tab automatically appears when you first start the Pipe Sizer application. Three selections appear at the top of the device screen:
  1. Size Steam Pipe - (By Flow): Select this row to open the input screen that allows you to specify total steam flow, steam pressure and one of either pressure loss, velocity, or pipe diameter parameters. By specifying any three of these parameters, the app will calculate other relevant results including total pressure loss. For example, if you specify a steam flow amount in lbs/hr, a saturated steam pressure in psia, and a loss value in psia/100 feet, the total steam velocity, pipe diameter, and total pressure loss will be calculated. See the section titled "Size Steam Pipe (By Flow) - Inputs" below for more details.
  2. Size Steam Pipe - (By Diameter): Select this row to open the input form that allows you to specify the pipe diameter, steam pressure, and one of either velocity or pressure loss parameters to calculate total steam flow and other relevant results. For example, if you specify an internal pipe diameter, an initial steam pressure, and a pressure loss value in psi/100 feet of pipe, the total steam flow, steam velocity, and total pressure loss will be calculated. See the section titled "Size Steam Pipe (By Diameter) - Inputs" below for more details.
  3. Steam Tables: Select this row to open the input form that allows you to utilize the steam table functionality. You can specify two sets of parameters for either saturated or superheated steam and the remaining properties will be calculated. See the section titled "Steam Tables - Inputs" below for more details.

Size Steam Pipe (By Flow) - Inputs

Select this row to open the form that allows you to select the steam flow in lbs/hr (kgs/hr), the initial steam pressure in psia, psig (kPa a, kPa g), and either the pressure loss in psi per 100 feet (kPa/100 meters), the pipe internal diameter in inches (centimeters) or the velocity of steam in feet/second (meters/second). This input form is appropriate for sizing new steam piping systems. The following is an explanation of each of the input controls:
  1. Steam Pressure Flow (psi or kPa) Textbox: Input the initial steam pressure (psia, psig or kPa a, kPa g) into this textbox. When you tap within this textbox, a keyboard will pop up allowing you to type in a value. Press the 'Done' button on the keyboard to hide it and register the value (Note that this keyboard appears when you tap within any of the active input textbox controls.). The results will automatically update based upon your newly inputted fluid flow value. You can input a maximum value that appears on the slider control just below this textbox. If you input a value that is greater than the maximum value, then it will be substituted with this maximum value. Read the section titled "Additional Pipe Inputs" for ways to increase or decrease the maximum allowable fluid flow input.
  2. Steam Pressure Slider: This slider control allows you to easily change the steam pressure value by using your finger to slide the indicator to the left or right. As you slide the indicator along this control, the results will immediately update. Also, the value represented by the position of the indicator on the slider control will appear in the steam pressure textbox discussed above. The maximum allowable value for the slider control is displayed at the far right. You can change this value in the "Additional Pipe Inputs" form described below.
  3. Steam Flow (lbs/hr or kgs/hr) Textbox: Input the steam flow value in lbs/hr (kgs/s) directly into this textbox. When you update this value, the slider control beneath this input box will also update. Notice that the result values all instantly update.
  4. Steam Flow Slider: This slider control allows you to easily change the steam flow value by using your finger to slide the indicator to the left or right. As you slide the indicator along this control, the results will immediately update. Also, the value represented by the position of the indicator on the slider control will appear in the steam flow textbox discussed above. The maximum allowable value for the slider control is displayed at the far right. You can change this value in the "Additional Pipe Inputs" form described below.
  5. Loss/Diameter/Velocity Selector: This selector allows you to specify which type of value to input into the textbox discussed in #6 below. If you select "Loss", you can input the steam pressure loss in psi/100 feet of pipe (kPa/100 meters). If you select "Diameter", you can input the internal pipe diameter in inches (centimeters). If you select "Velocity", can input the steam velocity in feet/second (meters/second) or feet/min (meters/minute). The units are displayed to the right of the text box. In addition, the slider control described in #7 below will update.
  6. Loss/Diameter/Velocity Textbox: This textbox allows you to input the pressure loss, diameter, or velocity value depending upon the selection made in the control described in #5 above. The results will automatically update based upon your newly inputted value. You can input a maximum value that appears on the slider control just below this textbox. If you input a value that is greater than the maximum value, then it will be substituted with this maximum value. Read the section titled "Additional Pipe Inputs" for ways to increase or decrease the maximum allowable fluid flow input.
  7. Loss/Diameter/Velocity Slider: This slider control allows you to easily change the pressure loss, diameter, or velocity value by using your finger to slide the indicator to the left or right. As you slide the indicator along the control, the calculated results will immediately update. Also, the value represented by the position of the indicator on the slider control will appear in the loss/diameter/velocity textbox discussed above. The maximum allowable value for the slider control is displayed at the far right. You can change this value in the "Additional Pipe Inputs" form described below.

Steam Pipe Size (By Flow) - Results

The calculated results are immediately updated as you change values in any of the controls discussed above. Two columns of results are displayed. The column labeled "Calculated" contain results that are precisely calculated without any nominal pipe dimensions involved. However, since most pipes are manufactured to nominal sizes, the "Nominal" column of data is displayed. This column contains dimensions that are rounded to the nearest nominal pipe dimension. These nominal dimensions are derived from tables that take into account the pipe material type and internal pipe diameter. The resulting pressure loss and velocity values are also updated. The following is an explanation of all of the result values:
  1. Nominal Pipe Dia: This result displays the nominal pipe diameter for the particular pipe material type and internal pipe diameter. Only the "Nominal" column contains a value while the calculated column will always display "N/A".
  2. Internal Pipe Dia (in or cm): Under the "Calculated" column, this result displays the calculated (or selected) internal pipe diameter. Under the "Nominal" column, it displays the actual internal diameter of the nominal pipe.
  3. Velocity (ft/s, ft/m or m/s, m/m): This result displays the selected or calculated steam velocity for the calculated and nominal pipe sizes. The results are dispayed in per second or per minute units depending upon the selection made in the "Additional Pipe Settings" form.
  4. Pressure Loss (psi/100ft or psi/100m): This result displays the selected or calculated pipe pressure loss for calculated and nominal pipe sizes.
  5. Total Loss (psi or kPa): This result displays the total pressure loss in the pipe taking into account the unit pressure loss, the total length of pipe (feet or meters), and the total pipe equivalent length of any fittings.

Size Steam Pipe (By Diameter) - Inputs

Select this option to open the form that allows you to select the pipe diameter in inches (cm), the initial steam pressure (psi or kPa) and one of either pressure losss in psi/100 feet (kPa/100m) or steam velocity in feet/s (m/s). This input mode is appropriate for analyzing existing steam piping systems. The following is an explanation of each of the input controls in this mode:
  1. Steam Pressure Flow (psi or kPa) Textbox: Input the initial steam pressure (psia, psig or kPa a, kPa g) into this textbox. When you tap within this textbox, a keyboard will pop up allowing you to type in a value. Press the 'Done' button on the keyboard to hide it and register the value (Note that this keyboard appears when you tap within any of the active input textbox controls.). The results will automatically update based upon your newly inputted fluid flow value. You can input a maximum value that appears on the slider control just below this textbox. If you input a value that is greater than the maximum value, then it will be substituted with this maximum value. Read the section titled "Additional Pipe Inputs" for ways to increase or decrease the maximum allowable fluid flow input.
  2. Steam Pressure Slider: This slider control allows you to easily change the steam pressure value by using your finger to slide the indicator to the left or right. As you slide the indicator along this control, the results will immediately update. Also, the value represented by the position of the indicator on the slider control will appear in the steam pressure textbox discussed above. The maximum allowable value for the slider control is displayed at the far right. You can change this value in the "Additional Pipe Inputs" form described below.
  3. Pipe Diameter (in or cm) Textbox: This textbox allows you to input the internal pipe diameter value in inches (centimeters). The calculated results will automatically update based upon your newly inputted value. You can input a maximum value that appears on the slider control just below this textbox. If you input a value that is greater than the maximum value, then it will be substituted with this maximum value.
  4. Pipe Diameter Slider: A slider control appears below the textbox described above. It allows you to easily change the diameter by using your finger to slide the indicator to the left or right. As you slide the indicator along the control, the results will immediately update. Also, the value represented by the position of the indicator on the slider control will appear in the diameter textbox just above it. The maximum allowable value for the slider control is displayed at the far right. You can change this value in the "Additional Pipe Inputs" form described below.
  5. Loss/Velocity Selector: This selector allows you to specify which type of value to input into the textbox discussed in #6 below. If you select "Loss", you are able to input the pressure loss in psi/100 feet (kPa/100 meters). If you select "Velocity", you are able to input the steam velocity in feet/second (meters/second). The units are displayed to the right of the text box. In addition, the slider control described in #7 below will update.
  6. Loss/Velocity Textbox: This textbox allows you to input a pressure loss or velocity value depending upon the selection made in the control described in #5 above. The results will automatically update based upon your newly inputted value. You can input a maximum value that appears on the slider control just below this textbox.
  7. Loss/Velocity Slider: This slider control allows you to easily change the pressure loss or velocity value by using your finger to slide the indicator to the left or right. As you slide the indicator along the control, the calculated results will immediately update. Also, the value represented by the position of the indicator on the slider control will appear in the loss/velocity textbox discussed above. The maximum allowable value for the slider control is displayed at the far right. You can change this value in the "Additional Pipe Inputs" form described below.

Size Steam Pipe (By Diameter) - Results

The calculated results are immediately updated as you change values in any of the controls discussed above. Two columns of results are displayed. The column labeled "Calculated" contain results that are precisely calculated without any nominal pipe dimensions involved. However, since most piping is manufactured to nominal sizes, the "Nominal" column of data is displayed. This column contains dimensions that are rounded to the nearest nominal pipe diameter. These nominal diameters are derived from tables that are based upon the pipe material type an the internal pipe diameter. The resulting head loss and velocity values are also updated. The following is an explanation of all of the result values:
  1. Nominal Pipe Dia: This result displays the nominal pipe diameter for the particular pipe material type and internal pipe diameter. Only the "Nominal" column contains a value while the calculated column will always display "N/A".
  2. Steam Flow (lbs/hr or kgs/hr): The same calculated steam flow value in lbs/hr (kgs/hr) is displayed under both the "Calculated" and "Nominal" columns as the user updates the internal diameter and other properties.
  3. Velocity (ft/s or m/s): This result displays the selected or calculated steam velocity in ft/s (m/s) or ft/m (m/m).
  4. Press Loss (psi/100ft or kPa/100m): This result displays the selected (or calculated) unit pipe pressure loss.
  5. Total Loss psi or kPa): This result displays the total pressure loss in the pipe taking into account the unit pressure loss, the total length of pipe (feet or meters), and the total pipe equivalent length of any fittings.

Additional Pipe Inputs

This screen is accessed by clicking the round button with the "i" inside it located at the top right-hand portion of the main pipe input screen. The form will flip around and a number of additional pipe inputs will appear. The following is an explanation of each input:
  1. Steam Type: This selector allows you to specify the type of steam to be modeled: saturated or superheated. If you select saturated, then only the pressure input on the main pipe input form will determine the steam properties. If you select superheated, the "Steam Temperature" input below this control will become active allowing you to specify both the superheat temperature and the steam pressure.
  2. Steam Temperature (F or C): This input is activated if you selected the "Superheated" option above. This allows you to input the steam superheat temperature. This value along with the steam pressure inputted on the main pipe input form will determine the steam properties for purposes of sizing steam pipe.
  3. Import Steam Table Values: This selector allows you to specify whether to import the steam properties from the "Steam Tables" form (See information about this form below) into the pipe sizing form. It will import the steam pressure for saturated steam and steam pressure and superheat temperature for superheated steam. These values will be used to determine the steam properties for purposes of sizing steam piping.
  4. Pressure Units: This selector allows you to specify and display the units of steam pressure in either psi (lbs/in^2) absolute or psi gauge (for metric, kPa absolute or kPa gauge). The steam pressure units on the main piping input form will update accordingly.
  5. Velocity Units: This selector allows you to specify and display the units of velocity in either ft/s or ft/minute (for metric, m/s or m/minute). The velocity units on the main piping input form will update accordingly.
  6. Pipe Material: This input allows you to specify the type of pipe material. Each pipe material type represents a pipe roughness value. Select the button inside this input cell to display a new screen that allows you to select from one of the following pipe material types:
    1. Steel, Schedule 10
    2. Steel, Schedule 40 Galv.
    3. Steel, Schedule 80 Galv.
    4. Copper, Type L
    5. Copper, Type K
    6. Brass Tubing, Regular
    7. Brass Tubing, Extra Strong
    8. Other
    9. Cast Iron, Plain
    10. Cast Iron, Tar Coated
    11. Cast Iron, Cement Lined
    12. Cast Iron, Bituminous Lined
    13. Galvanized Iron, Plain
    14. Wrought Iron, Plain
    15. Concrete
    16. Cement - Asbestos
    17. Vitrified Clay
    18. Brick Sewer
    19. Plastic
    20. Fiberglass
    21. PVC (Schedule 40)
    22. PVC (Schedule 80)
    23. Copper, Type M

    As you select each pipe material type, the pipe roughness value will update in the text box below the picker control. Press the "Back" button to return to the previous form, and the newly selected pipe material type will appear along with the pipe roughness value.
    Please note that the pipe material is also important for determining the nominal pipe sizes and the fitting equivalent length values. See the "Explanation of the Pipe Sizer Formulas" section below for more information about the pipe sizing calculations.
  7. Pipe Roughness (ft or m): This input allows you to specify the pipe roughness value in feet or meters. This value is automatically updated according to the pipe material you selected above. However, you can also override this value.
  8. Total Length of Pipe (ft or m): This input allows you to specify the total length of pipe (not including equivalent length of fittings).
  9. Total Fitting Quantities: This input is a read-only value representing the total quantity of fittings that is inputted in the next screen that is accessed by clicking the button within this input cell. This next screen displays a list of 11 common pipe fittings, including:
    1. Regular 90 deg. ell
    2. Long Radius 90 deg. ell
    3. Regular 45 deg. ell
    4. Tee-line flow
    5. Tee-branch flow
    6. 180 deg. return bend
    7. Globe valve
    8. Gate valve
    9. Angle valve
    10. Swing check valve
    11. Coupling/Union

    Each of these fittings represents a pipe equivalent length value for certain types of pipe material types (discussed more below). These pipe equivalent lengths are added to the total pipe length to derive the total head loss in feet or meters.
    You can input quantities up to 1000 for each of the listed fittings. In addition, you can specify the fitting connection type by clicking the button within each input cell to display a picker control that allows you to select either "Screwed" or "Flanged" fitting connection type. As an added feature, you can shake your device (if this functionality is activated in the "Global Settings" form) to reset all of the quantities to 0 and all the fitting connection types to "Screwed". You will be asked for confirmation prior to reset. After you have completed inputting the quantities and selecting the fitting connection types, press the "Back" button at the top of the screen to return to the previous screen. The total quantity of fittings will now display.
  10. Max Steam Pressure (psia or L/s): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable steam pressure input. After returning to the main piping input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum steam pressure.
  11. Max Steam Flow (lbs/hr or kgs/hr): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable steam flow input. After returning to the main piping input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum steam flow.
  12. Max Press Loss (psi/100 ft or kPa/100m): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable unit pipe pressure drop input. After returning to the main piping input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum pressure loss.
  13. Max Pipe Diameter (in or cm): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable pipe diameter input. After returning to the main piping input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum pipe diameter.
  14. Max Steam Velocity (ft/s or m/s): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable steam velocity input. After returning to the main piping input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum steam velocity.
As an added feature, you can shake the device and the values in this form will reset to the initial settings that existed when you first installed the Pipe Sizer application. You will be asked for confirmation prior to reset. This feature can be disabled in the "Global Settings" form discussed below.

To return to the main piping input screen, click the button at the top right of the screen, and the form will "flip" over revealing the main piping inputs.

Steam Tables

This form is accessed by selecting the "Steam Tables" option on the initial startup screen. The "Steam Tables" form allows you to specify from two sets of parameters to calculate the remaining properties for either saturated or superheated steam. The basis for the steam table calculations are the 1967 IFC-Formulation for Industrial Use (IFC-67). The following is an explanation of the inputs:

Saturated/Superheated Selector: This selector allows you to specify the type of steam: saturated or superheated. Depending upon the selection you make will determine the types of parameters that are displayed (discussed below).

If the "Saturated" option is selected, the following inputs are available:
  1. Temp/Pressure Selector: This selector allows you to specify the parameter type for the textbox to the right of this control and also the slider control located just below it. If you select "Temp", you are able to specify the saturated steam temperature (deg F/R or deg C/K) in the textbox and slider control. If you select "Pressure", you are able to specify the saturated steam pressure (psia/psig, etc. or kPa a/kPa g, etc.) in the textbox and slider control.
  2. Temp/Pressure Textbox: Depending upon selection you made in the selector described above, you can input either the saturated steam temperature or pressure. After the value has been inputted, the calculated results will automatically update and the slider control indicator will relocate to the appropriate position. You cannot input a value greater than the maximum value on the slider control below the textbox.
  3. Temp/Pressure Slider: Depending upon the selection you made in the selector described above, you can alter either the saturated steam temperature or pressure using this slider control. As you slide the indicator along the control, the results will immediately update. Also, the minimum/maximum values of the second parameter slider control (see below) will update if the second parameter type is either specific enthalpy (h), specific volume (v), or specific entropy (s). The minimum value displayed will be the specific property at 0% quality. The maximum value displayed will be the specific property at 100% quality. Also, depending upon the "step" value that you input in the "Steam Table Props." form the temperature/pressure values will increase/decrease by the "step" amount. See the explanation of the "Steam Table Props." form below.
  4. x/h/v/s Selector: This selector control is for the 2nd paramenter, and it allows you to select from one of 4 different steam properties:
    1. "x" is quality (from 0% to 100%)
    2. "h" is specific enthalpy
    3. "v" is specific volume
    4. "s" is specific entropy
    As you select each of these properties, the textbox value and the slider control min/max values will all update.

    Selecting "x" allows you to vary the quality from 0% to 100% for the selected saturated temperature or pressure in parameter 1. You can either input the value into the textbox to the right of the selector control or use the slider control to increase/decrease the value and instantly view the calculated results.

    Selecting "h" allows you to vary the specific enthalpy from the minimum enthalpy at 0% quality to the maximum enthalpy at 100% quality for the selected saturated temperature or pressure. When you select this option in the selector control, the currently calculated specific enthalpy will populate the textbox. You can use the slider control to vary the specific enthalpy. This value along with the selected saturated temperature or pressure will be used to calculate the remaining steam table properties.

    Selecting "v" allows you to vary the specific volume from the minimum volume at 0% quality to the maximum volume at 100% quality for the selected saturated temperature or pressure. When you select this option in the selector control, the currently calculated specific volume will populate the textbox. You can use the slider control to vary the specific volume. This value along with the selected saturated temperature or pressure will be used to calculate the remaining steam table properties.

    Selecting "s" allows you to vary the specific entropy from the minimum entropy at 0% quality to the maximum entropy at 100% quality for the selected saturated temperature or pressure. When you select this option in the selector control, the currently calculated specific entropy will populate the textbox. You can use the slider control to vary the specific entropy. This value along with the selected saturated temperature or pressure will be used to calculate the remaining steam table properties.
The following outputs are available for the "Saturated" mode (The order and appearance of these outputs vary depending upon the input parameters selected):
  1. Saturation Pressure: This is the corresponding saturation pressure (psia, psig, etc.) for the selected saturation temperature.
  2. Quality: This is the percentage of dryness of the wet steam, ranging from 0% to 100%.
  3. Enthalpy of Water (hf): This is specific enthalpy (BTU/lb) for the selected saturation temperature/pressure at 0% quality.
  4. Enthalpy of Evaporation of Steam: This is the difference between the specific enthalpy of water and the specific enthalpy of steam for the selected saturation temperature/pressure.
  5. Enthalpy of Steam (hg): This is the specific enthalpy (BTU/lb) of steam at the currently selected percentage quality.
  6. Volume of Steam (v): This is the specific volume (ft^3/lb) of the steam at the currently selected percentage quality.
  7. Density of Steam: This is the reciprocal of the specific volume (lb/ft^3) and is used to help size steam piping.
  8. Entropy of Water (sf): This is the specific entropy (BTU/lb-F) of steam for the selected saturation temperature/pressure at 0% quality.
  9. Entropy of Evaporation of Steam: This is the difference between the specific entropy of water and the specific entropy of steam for the selected saturation temperature/pressure.
  10. Entropy of Steam (sg): This is the specific entropy (BTU/lb-F) of steam at the currently selected percentage quality.
  11. Steam Dynamic Viscosity: This is the dynamic viscosity of the steam (lb/ft-s) of steam at the currently selected percentage quality.
If the "Superheated" option is selected, the following inputs are available:
  1. Superheat T/Pressure Selector: This selector allows you to specify the parameter type for the textbox to the right of this control and also the slider control located just below it. If you select "Superheat T", you are able to specify the superheated steam temperature (deg F/R or deg C/K) in the textbox and slider control. If you select "Pressure", you are able to specify the superheated steam pressure (psia/psig, etc. or kPa a/kPa g, etc.) in the textbox and slider control.
  2. Superheat T/Pressure Textbox: Depending upon selection you made in the selector described above, you can input either the superheated steam temperature or pressure. After the value has been inputted, the calculated results will automatically update and the slider control indicator will relocate to the appropriate position. You cannot input a value greater than the maximum value on the slider control below the textbox.
  3. Superheat T/Pressure Slider: Depending upon selection you made in the selector described above, you can alter either the superheated steam temperature or pressure using this slider control. As you slide the indicator along the control, the results will immediately update. Depending upon the "step" value that you input in the "Steam Table Props." form the temperature/pressure values will increase/decrease by the "step" amount. See the explanation of the "Steam Table Props." form below.
  4. p (or t)/h/v/s Selector: This selector control is for the 2nd paramenter, and it allows you to select from 4 different steam properties:
    1. "p" is the superheated pressure. This option is displayed if the first parameter selected is superheated temperature
    2. "t" is the superheated temperature. This option is displayed if the first parameter selected is superheated pressure
    3. "h" is specific enthalpy
    4. "v" is specific volume
    5. "s" is specific entropy
    As you select each of these properties, the textbox value and the slider control min/max values will all update.

    Selecting "p" allows you to vary the superheated pressure. You can either input the value into the textbox to the right of the selector control or use the slider control to increase/decrease the value and instantly view the calculated results.

    Selecting "t" allows you to vary the superheated temperature. You can either input the value into the textbox to the right of the selector control or use the slider control to increase/decrease the value and instantly view the calculated results.

    Selecting "h" allows you to vary the specific enthalpy. When you select this option in the selector control, the currently calculated specific enthalpy will populate the textbox. You can use the slider control to vary the specific enthalpy. This value along with the selected superheated temperature or pressure will be used to calculate the remaining steam table properties.

    Selecting "v" allows you to vary the specific volume. When you select this option in the selector control, the currently calculated specific volume will populate the textbox. You can use the slider control to vary the specific volume. This value along with the selected superheated temperature or pressure will be used to calculate the remaining steam table properties.

    Selecting "s" allows you to vary the specific entropy. When you select this option in the selector control, the currently calculated specific entropy will populate the textbox. You can use the slider control to vary the specific entropy. This value along with the selected superheated temperature or pressure will be used to calculate the remaining steam table properties.
The following outputs are available for the "Superheated" mode. Please note that not all combinations of parameter 1 and 2 produce valid results. Any parameters that are out of bounds will display results as "NA". Also, the order and appearance of these outputs vary depending upon the input parameters selected:
  1. Pressure: This is the corresponding superheated pressure (psia, psig, etc.) for the selected superheated temperature and 2nd parameter.
  2. Saturation Temperature: This is the corresponding saturation temperature for the selected or calculated superheated pressure.
  3. Degrees Superheat: This is the difference between the superheated temperature (whether specified or calculated) and the saturation temperature.
  4. Enthalpy of Water (hf): This is specific enthalpy (BTU/lb) for the selected superheated pressure at 0% quality for the equivalent saturation pressure.
  5. Enthalpy of Steam (hg): This is the specific enthalpy (BTU/lb) of steam for the currently selected superheated properties.
  6. Volume of Steam (v): This is the specific volume (ft^3/lb) of steam for the currently selected superheated properties.
  7. Density of Steam: This is the reciprocal of the specific volume (lb/ft^3) and is used to help size steam piping.
  8. Entropy of Water (sf): This is the specific entropy (BTU/lb-F) for the selected superheated pressure at 0% quality for the equivalent saturation pressure.
  9. Entropy of Steam (sg): This is the specific entropy (BTU/lb-F) of steam for the currently selected superheated properties.
  10. Steam Dynamic Viscosity: This is the dynamic viscosity of the steam (lb/ft-s) of steam for the currently selected superheated properties.

Steam Table Properties

This screen is accessed by clicking the round button with the "i" inside it located at the top right-hand portion of the steam tables input screen. The form will flip around and a number of additional steam table property inputs will appear. The following is an explanation of each input:
  1. Pressure Units: This input allows you to select the pressure units that are displayed in the main steam table input form. If you press the button locted on the far right of this cell, a picker control will display that lists all of the available units. The following English units are displayed
    1. psia (lbs/in^2 absolute)
    2. psig (lbs/in^2 gauge)
    3. in wg a (inches of water gauge absolute)
    4. in wg g (inches of water gauge gauge)
    5. atm a (atmospheres absolute)
    6. atm g (atmospheres gauge)
    The following Metric units are displayed
    1. kPa abs (kiloPascals absolute)
    2. kPa gauge (kiloPascals gauge)
    3. m wg a (meters of water gauge absolute)
    4. m wg g (meters of water gauge gauge)
    Select the units that you want displayed and press the "Back" button to return to the previous form. All values and units will be updated accordingly.
  2. Temperature Units: This input allows you to select the temperature units that are displayed in the main steam table input form. If you press the button located on the far right of this cell, a picker control will display that lists all of the available units. The following English units are displayed
    1. F (Fahrenheit)
    2. R (Rankine)
    The following Metric units are displayed
    1. C (Celcius)
    2. K (Kelvin)
    Select the units that you want displayed and press the "Back" button to return to the previous form. All values and units will be updated accordingly.
  3. Max Saturated Temp (F/R or C/K): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable saturated steam temperature input. After returning to the main steam sizing input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum saturated steam temperature.
  4. Max Superheat Temp (F/R or C/K): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable superheated steam temperature input. After returning to the main steam sizing input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum superheated steam temperature.
  5. Temperature Step Value: This input allows you to specify the "step" value by which the temperature value will increase/decrease as you slide the indicator along the slider control on the main steam table input form. For example, if you specify "5", the temperature will increase/decrease by 5 degrees as you slide the slider control indicator. If you specify 0, the value update will be continuous.
  6. Max Saturated Press (psia, etc. or kPa a, etc.): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable saturated steam pressure input. After returning to the main steam sizing input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum saturated steam pressure.
  7. Max Superheat Press (psia, etc. or kPa a, etc.): This input allows you to specify the maximum allowable superheated steam pressure input. After returning to the main steam sizing input screen, the slider control will update according to the new value. You will not be allowed to specify a value greater than the maximum superheated steam pressure.
  8. Pressure Step Value: This input allows you to specify the "step" value by which the pressure value will increase/decrease as you slide the indicator along the slider control on the main steam table input form. For example, if you specify "5", the pressure will increase/decrease by 5 psia (or other units) as you slide the slider control indicator. If you specify 0, the value update will be continuous.
  9. Maximum Quality: This input allows you to specify the maximum quality percentage value that appears on the second parameter slider control on the main steam table input form. The default value is 100%.
  10. Quality Step Value: This input allows you to specify the "step" value by which the quality value will increase/decrease as you slide the indicator along the slider control on the main steam table input form. For example, if you specify "5", the quality will increase/decrease by 5% as you slide the slider control indicator. If you specify 0, the value update will be continuous.
  11. Maximum Enthalpy (BTU/lb or kJ/kg): This input allows you to specify the maximum enthalpy value that appears on the second parameter slider control on the main steam table input form. This maximum value applies to superheated calculations, only.
  12. Enthalpy Step Value: This input allows you to specify the "step" value by which the enthalpy value will increase/decrease as you slide the indicator along the slider control on the main steam table input form. For example, if you specify "5", the enthalpy will increase/decrease by 5 BTU/lb (kJ/kgs) as you slide the slider control indicator. If you specify 0, the value update will be continuous.
  13. Maximum Volume (ft^3/lb or m^3/kg): This input allows you to specify the maximum volume value that appears on the second parameter slider control on the main steam table input form. This maximum value applies to superheated calculations, only.
  14. Volume Step Value: This input allows you to specify the "step" value by which the volume value will increase/decrease as you slide the indicator along the slider control on the main steam table input form. For example, if you specify "5", the volume will increase/decrease by 5 ft^3/lb (m^3/kgs) as you slide the slider control indicator. If you specify 0, the value update will be continuous.
  15. Maximum Entropy (BTU/lb-F or kJ/kg-C): This input allows you to specify the maximum entropy value that appears on the second parameter slider control on the main steam table input form. This maximum value applies to superheated calculations, only.
  16. Entropy Step Value: This input allows you to specify the "step" value by which the entropy value will increase/decrease as you slide the indicator along the slider control on the main steam table input form. For example, if you specify "5", the entropy will increase/decrease by 5 BTU/lb-F (kJ/kgs-C) as you slide the slider control indicator. If you specify 0, the value update will be continuous.
As an added feature, you can shake the device, and the values in this form will reset to the initial settings that existed when you first installed the Pipe Sizer application. You will be asked for confirmation prior to reset. This feature can be disabled in the "Global Settings" form discussed below.

To return to the main steam sizing input screen, click the button at the top right of the screen, and the form will "flip" over revealing the main inputs along with updated values.

Global Settings Tab

This screen can be accessed by selecting the "Global Settings" tab on the home-page screen that first appears when you start the Pipe Sizer application. The following is an explanation of each of the inputs:
  1. Display Units: This selector allows you to specify whether to display all values in English (Imperial - IP) or Metric (SI) units. When you return to the main piping input screen, all values will reflect the new units.
  2. Where to Display Results on Screen: This selector allows you to specify where to display the calculated results on the device screen. You can display them at the top or the bottom. When you run the program for the first time, the inputs will appear at the botom of the screen and the results will appear at the top.
  3. Shake Device to Reset Values: This selector allows you to specify whether to activate the device "shake" (or accelerometer) functionality in three of the input screens of the Pipe Sizer application:
    1. By shaking the device in the "Additional Pipe Inputs" screen, you can reset the values to the initial settings that existing when you first installed the Pipe Sizer application. You will be asked for confirmation prior to reset.
    2. By shaking the device in the "Total Fitting Quantities" screen, you can reset the quantities to 0 and fitting connection types to "Screwed". You will be asked for confirmation prior to reset.
    3. By shaking the device in the "Steam Table Properties" screen, you can reset the values to the initial settings that existing when you first installed the Pipe Sizer application.
  4. Copy Values Between Calc. Modes: This selector allows you to specify whether the input/output values are copied between the 2 different pipe sizing input modes ("By Flow" or "By Diameter)". If you specify "Yes", the outputs from one mode will be copied to the inputs of the other mode and vice versa. This is useful for doing simple "what-if" analysis. Specify "No", if you want each input mode to maintain separate values.

Explanation of the Pipe Sizer Formulas

The formulas used to calculate the piping results are derived from the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. We use iterative techniques to provide the most accurate results as possible. These iterative equations work best for fluids with high Reynold's numbers (or very low viscosity values). For fluids with Reynold's numbers less than 2000, the equations are not as accurate. For example, Fuel Oil #6 will produce just approximate results.
Pipe Fitting Equivalent Lengths
The pipe fitting equivalent length tables that come with the Pipe Sizer app are only for steel and cast-iron piping. In addition, they only accomodate sizes up to a maximum of 24" diameter for flanged connections (less for screwed). For pipe material types other than steel and cast-iron, no equivalent lengths will be calculated.
Nominal Pipe Sizes
The nominal pipe sizing tables that come with the Pipe Sizer app are for the following pipe material types, only:
  1. Steel, Schedule 10
  2. Steel, Schedule 40 Galv.
  3. Steel, Schedule 80 Galv.
  4. Copper, Type L
  5. Copper, Type K
  6. Brass Tubing, Regular
  7. Brass Tubing, Extra Strong
  8. Cast Iron, Plain
  9. Cast Iron, Cement Lined
  10. PVC (Schedule 40)
  11. PVC (Schedule 80)
  12. Copper, Type M
In addition, the maximum nominal sizes vary for each pipe material type with the maximum being 24" for several types. For pipe material types other than those listed above, no values will be displayed in nominal diameter results text boxes

Steam Table Calculations

The basis for the steam table calculations are the 1967 IFC-Formulation for Industrial Use (IFC-67). Due to screen size limitations, not all possible results are displayed. Future versions will include additional results.

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